Vector dan Bitmap

* Definisi Gambar bebasis Vektor dan Bitmap:

vektor adalah sekumpulan objek dalam garis atau bentuk tertentu yang dapat didefinisikan secara matematis, diisi warna, dan memiliki resolusi bebas. Karena itu, vektor bisa diperbesar dalam ukuran berapa pun tanpa kehilangan resolusinya.

Sedangkan bitmap adalah objek grafis yang tersusun atas pixel. Setiap pixel atau sering disebut bit dalam objek tersebut memuat data informasi berupa warna yang akan ditampilkan.

Berbeda dengan vektor yang memiliki resolusi bebas, bitmap memiliki resolusi tetap. Sehingga bila diperbesar akan berakibat pada menurunnya ketajaman resolusinya.

Karena vektor jauh lebih unggul, maka sering kali para desainer melakukan perubahan format bitmap menjadi vektor. Proses ini biasa disebut tracing. Tracing ini bisa dilakukan dengan beberapa aplikasi. Misalnya Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand, Corel-Draw, Xara X ataupun software khusus tracing seperti CorelTrace.

* Perbedaan antara image Vector dan Bitmap

Vector :

* Imej jenis vektor ini juga mudah untuk di edit.

* Bersifat resolution independent, Kualitas Gambar tetap baik tanpa bergantung resolusinya

* Kelebihan ialah size file-nya yang agak kecil. Jadi walaupun sebuah gambar berbasis vektor diperbesar, kejernihannya/ kehalusannya dapat dikatakan tidak berkurang.

* Imej Vektor juga sering digunakan di dalam dunia design grafis dan multimedia.

* Kelemahan Kurang realistik ataupun kurang memenuhi ciri-ciri objek sebenarnya.

* Semakin kompleks imej yang dilukis semakin besar size filenya dan semakin lambat untuk ditampilkan di layar.

* Tipe gambar : EPS dan CGM

Bitmap :

* Bersifat Resolutions dependent, kualitasnya tidak tergantung pada resolusi.

* Sebuah gambar bitmap diperbesar melebihi ukuran normalnya akan tampak kasar ( pecah )

* Tipe file gambar : JPG, JPEG, BMP, GIF, TIF, TIFF, PCX, dan PNG.

* Membutuhkan space yang lebih besar daripada file gambar bertipe vektor untuk kualitas yang sama.

§ Software yang berbasis Vektor:

* Adobe Illustrator

Adobe Illustration adalah software komputer grafis berbasis vektor data. Software ini dipergunakan oleh kalangan seniman dan desainer, dari berbagai macam bidang seperti desain grafis, desain tekstil, illustrator, percetakan, web designer dan lain sebagainya. Software ini dibuat oleh Adobe System Incorporated.

* Macromedia Freehand®

Sama halnya dengan Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand ® adalah software grafis berbasis vektor data. Dibuat oleh Macromedia, Inc.

* CorelDraw®

Software grafis berbasis vektor data produksi Corel Corporation.

* Maya3D

* Strata 3D CX

* Ulead COOL 3D

* Swift 3D

* Autocade

* 3D Home Architect

* Software yang berbasis Bitmap:

* Adobe Photoshop®

Adalah software pengolah gambar atau foto. Dengan software ini para ahli melakukan olah ulang atau retouching pada gambar/foto sehingga gambar yang dihasilkan bisa seperti yang dikehendaki. Saat ini Photoshop tidak hanya dipergunakan oleh kalangan seniman dan desainer, tapi juga bidang lain seperti kedokteran, pertanian dan bahkan astronomi. Sofware ini diproduksi oleh Adobe System Incorporated.

* Windows Paints

* Paintbrush

* Corel Photopaint

o Format File:

* Format files berbasis Bitmap:

* The Windows bitmap (BMP) file format was developed as a standard for representing graphic images as bitmaps on the Windows operating system

* JPEG is a standard format developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group, allowing the transfer of files between a wide variety of platforms, using superior compression techniques. JPEG supports 8-bit grayscale and color depths up to 32-bit CMYK.

* GIF is a bitmap-based format designed for use on the Web. It is highly compressed to minimize file transfer time and supports images with up to 256 colors. The GIF format provides the ability to store multiple bitmaps in a file. When the multiple images are displayed in rapid succession, the file is called an animated GIF file. For Internet use, you can also save images to the JPEG and PNG formats. If you want to publish an image to the Web and you are not sure which format to use, see To save and optimize a bitmap to Web-compatible format.

* The Portable Network Graphics (PNG) file format is an excellent file format for lossless, portable, and well-compressed storage of bitmaps. It takes up a minimum amount of disk space and can be easily read and exchanged between computers. The Portable Network Graphics format provides a replacement for the GIF format and can also replace many common uses of the TIFF format. The Portable Network Graphics format is designed to work well in online viewing, such as on the Web, and it’s fully streamable with a progressive display option. Some Web browsers do not support all formatting and features. You can export images to the Portable Network Graphics file format if you want to use transparent backgrounds, image interlacing, image maps, or animation in your Web pages. Exporting graphics to the Portable Network Graphics format converts them to bitmaps that can be used in desktop publishing programs and Microsoft Office applications. You can also edit Portable Network Graphics in paint programs such as Corel PHOTO-PAINT and Adobe Photoshop.

* The Tagged Image File format (TIFF) is a raster format designed as a standard. Almost every graphics application can read and write TIFF files. There are many variations of TIFF, considering that TIFF supports six different encoding routines and three different image modes: black and white, grayscale, and color. Uncompressed TIFF images may be 1, 4, 8, 24 bits per pixel. TIFF images compressed using the LZW algorithm may be 4, 8, or 24 bits per pixel. TIFF files can save RGB, CMYK, and Lab color mode information, but not duotones.

* The Corel WordPerfect Graphic file format (WPG) is primarily a vector graphic format, but it can store both bitmap and vector data. The WPG files may contain up to 256 colors chosen from a palette of more than one million colors.

* The WordPerfect Document format (WPD) is the native file format for WordPerfect files. CorelDRAW supports WPD files from WordPerfect 4.2 to 10. When you import or export a WordPerfect file only text is transferred. Graphic elements are not imported or exported. WordPerfect files for versions 4 and 5 have the extensions .wp4 and .wp5.

* The Adobe Photoshop (PSD) file format is the native bitmap file format for Adobe Photoshop.

* The Adobe Illustrator file format (AI) was developed by Adobe Systems, Incorporated for the Macintosh and Windows platforms. It is primarily vector-based although later versions support bitmap information.

* Format file berbasis vektor:

* Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM)

Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM) is an open, platform-independent metafile format used for storing and exchanging 2-D graphics. It supports RGB color. CGM files can contain both vector graphics and bitmaps, but usually contain one graphic type or the other, rarely both.

* PICT

The Macintosh PICT file format was developed for the Mac OS platform by Apple Computer Inc. It is a native file format of QuickDraw and can contain both vectors and bitmaps. The Macintosh PICT file format is widely used in Macintosh applications where graphics are used.

* Portable Document Format (PDF)

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format designed to preserve fonts, images, graphics, and formatting of an original application file. Using Adobe Acrobat Reader and Adobe Acrobat Exchange, a PDF file can be viewed, shared, and printed by Mac OS, Windows, and UNIX users.

You can import an entire PDF file, individual pages from the file or multiple pages.

* Other file formats:

* Adobe Type 1 Font (PFB) — The PFB file format is for an Adobe Type 1 Font file.

* ANSI Text (TXT) — ANSI Text (TXT) is a vector format that stores ANSI characters. This format is able to store text information but not formatting information, such as the font type or size. When you import a TXT file to, or export it file from CorelDRAW, only the text is transferred. If there are graphic elements in the file, they will not be imported or exported.

* CALS Compressed Bitmap (CAL) — CALS Raster (CAL) is a bitmap format used mainly for document storage by high-end CAD programs. It supports a monochrome (1-bit) color depth and is used as a data graphics exchange format for computer aided design and manufacturing, technical graphics, and image processing applications.

* Corel ArtShow 5 (CPX) — The CPX file format is a native file format of Corel ArtShow 5. It can contain both vectors and bitmaps.

* Corel Presentations (SHW) — the SHW file format is a native format for Corel Presentations.

* Corel R.A.V.E. (CLK) — the CLK file format is an animation file native to Corel R.A.V.E.

* CorelDRAW Compressed (CDX) — The CDX file format is a compressed CorelDRAW file.

* CorelDRAW Template (CDT) — the CDT file format is for a CorelDRAW template file.

* FPX — The FlashPix file format stores images at different resolutions in a single file.

* Frame Vector Metafile (FMV) — The FMV file format is for a Frame Vector Metafile.

* GEM Paint (IMG) — GEM Paint (IMG) is a bitmap format that is the native bitmapped file format of the GEM environment. IMG files support 1 and 4-bit paletted color. and are compressed using an RLE method. IMG was a common format in the early days of desktop publishing.

* GEM File (GEM) — The GEM file format is for a GEM file.

* Lotus PIC (PIC) — The PIC file format is for a Lotus PIC file.

* MacPaint Bitmap (MAC) — MacPaint (MAC) is a bitmap format that uses the file extensions MAC, PCT, PNT and PIX. It is the format used by the MacPaint program that was included with the Macintosh 128. It supports only 2 colors and a palette of patterns. It is used mainly by Macintosh graphics applications to store black-and-white graphics and clipart. The maximum size for MAC images is 720×576.

* Macromedia FreeHand (FH) — the FH format is the native vector file format for Macromedia Freehand. Corel graphics applications only support Macromedia FreeHand versions 7 and 8.

* MET Metafile (MET) — The MET file format is for a MET Metafile.

* Micrografx 2.x, 3.x (DRW) — The DRW file format is for a Micrografx 2.x or 3.x file.

* Micrografx Picture Publisher 4 (PP4) — The PP4 file format is a native file format for Micrographx Picture Publisher 4.

* Micrografx Picture Publisher 5 (PP5) — The PP5 file format is a native file format for Micrographx Picture Publisher 5.

* Microsoft PowerPoint (PPT) — the PPT file format is native to Microsoft PowerPoint.

* NAP Metafile (NAP) — The NAP file format is for a NAP Metafile.

* OS/2 Bitmap (BMP) — This type of bitmap file is designed for the OS/2 operating system.

* Pattern File (PAT) — The PAT file format is for a pattern file.

* Rich Text Format (RTF) — Rich Text Format (RTF) is a text format that stores plain text plus text formatting such as bold. When you import an RTF file to, or export it from CorelDRAW, only the text is transferred. If there are graphic elements in your file they will not be imported to or exported from CorelDRAW.

* SCITEX CT Bitmap (SCT) — The SCT file format is used for importing 32-bit color and grayscale SCITEX images. SCITEX bitmaps are created from high-end scanners. The bitmaps are then processed for output by film recorders or high-end page layout programs.

* TrueType Font (TTF) — The TrueType Font (TTF) file format was created jointly by Apple Computer and Microsoft Corporation. It is the most common format for fonts used in both Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The TTF file format prints a font as bitmaps or vectors depending on the capabilities of your printer. True Type fonts print as they appear on screen and can be resized to any height.

* Visio (VSD) — VSD is the Visio drawing format. It can contain bitmaps and vectors.

* Windows Metafile Format (WMF) — Windows Metafile Format (WMF), developed by Microsoft Corporation, stores both vector and bitmap information. It was developed as the internal file format for Microsoft Windows 3. It supports 24-bit RGB color and is supported by most Windows applications.

* XPixMap Image (XPM) — The XPM file format is used with an XPixMap Image file.

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3 komentar

  1. wah tentang vektor ya? pertama kali nyoba vektor kirain ribet dan susah, ternyata hanya soal kesabaran aja.,,,

    oia, jujur sampai sekarang saya belum tau bedanya freehand sama ilustrator?… saya peker freehand sih dan blum pernah coba illustrator apalagi corel,, kayanya ribet ya

  2. [...] “vektor adalah sekumpulan objek dalam garis atau bentuk tertentu yang dapat didefinisikan secara matematis, diisi warna, dan memiliki resolusi bebas. “, nurannisaa7. [...]

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